Trevor Makal

Trevor A.

Van W. Daniel III Associate Professor of Chemistry

Courses Taught

  • College Chemistry I and lab
  • College Chemistry II and lab
  • Inorganic Chemistry and lab
  • Introduction to Crystallography and Diffraction

Research Interests

My research interests are based, broadly, on the synthesis, characterization, and application of advanced porous materials, primarily metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Owing to the extensive coal mining in the Appalachia region and increased prevalence of hydraulic fracturing, as well as recent chemical and power plant waste water spills, my current research interests have become focused on the development of new porous materials for the capture of heavy metals and toxic chemicals from aquatic environments.

We have been investigating the synthesis of water-stable MOFs for capture of heavy metals through application of hard-soft acid base (HSAB) theory. MOFs allow the opportunity to anchor individual binding sites to prevent aggregation and allow for investigation of binding modes and ligand proximity on the influence of heavy metal adsorption. Furthermore, the crystalline nature of MOFs allows us to thoroughly characterize and study binding phenomena through X-ray diffraction methods, as well as fine-tune pore sizes, shapes, and functionalities through ligand or metal modification strategies to enhance binding affinity and efficiency.

Other research interests include structure property relationships in MOFs (specifically as they apply to alternative fuel storage, including natural gas and hydrogen), stimuli-responsive materials for chemical toxin capture and drug delivery systems, and step-wise synthesis of advanced porous materials.

Professional Memberships

  • American Chemical Society

Selected Publications

Makal, T. A.; Veige, A. S. “Development of Inorganic Click (iClick) and Related Cycloaddition Chemistry” in Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry III, 2021, 1086-1100. Invited chapter.

Beto, C. C.; Zeman IV, C. J.; Yang, Y.; Bullock, J. D.; Holt, E. D.; Kane, A. Q.*; Makal, T. A.; Yang, X.; Chiviriga, I.; Schanze, K. S.; Veige, A. S. “An Application Exploiting Aurophilic Bonding and iClick to Produce White Light Emitting Materials” Inorg. Chem. 2020, 59 (3), 1893-1904. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b03195

Fast, C.*; Woods, J.*; Lentchner, J.*; Makal, T. A. “Stabilizing Defects in Metal-Organic Frameworks: Pendant Lewis Basic Sites as Capping Agents in UiO-66-type MOFs toward Highly Stable and Defective Porous Materials” Dalton Trans. 2019, 48, 14696-14704. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9DT03004B

Makal, T. A. “Methane in MOFs: where, why, and how”; In Methane and Hydrogen for Energy Storage, Carriveau, R. and Ting, D. S-K., Eds. The Institution of Engineering and Technology: London 2016: pp 105-124.

Wang, X.; Makal, T. A.; Zhou, H.-C. Protein Immobilization in Metal-Organic Frameworks by Covalent Binding Aust. J. Chem. 2014, 67, 1629-1631. https://doi.org/10.1071/CH14104

Makal, T. A.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, H.-C. “Realization of Both High Hydrogen Selectivity and Capacity in a Guest Responsive Metal-Organic Framework” J. Mater. Chem. A 2013, 1, 13502-13509. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3TA12761C

Makal, T. A.; Wang, X.; Zhou, H.-C. “Tuning the Moisture and Thermal Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks through Incorporation of Pendant Hydrophobic Groups” Cryst. Growth Des. 2013, 13 (11), 4760-4768. https://doi.org/10.1021/cg4009224

Makal, T. A.; Li, J.-R.; Lu, W.; Zhou, H.-C. “Methane Storage in Advanced Porous Materials”Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41 (23), 7761-7779. (Featured on Back Cover) https://doi.org/10.1039/C2CS35251F

Makal, T. A.; Yakovenko, A. A.; Zhou, H-C. “Isomerism in Metal-Organic Frameworks: “Framework Isomers”” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2011, 2, 1682-1689. (Featured on Cover)  http://doi.org/10.1021/jz200424h



Makal, T. A. “Stabilizing defects in metal-organic frameworks: Pendant Lewis basic sites as capping agents in UiO-66-type MOFs” ACS Fall 2021 National Meeting, August 23, 2021, Atlanta, GA (virtual session).

Makal, T. A. “Design and synthesis of metal-organic frameworks with embedded basic sites for remediation of contaminated water sources” 70th Southeastern Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society November 1, 2018, Augusta, GA. Invited talk.

Makal, T. A. “Undergraduate inorganic/materials research at UVA Wise: Evaluating the roles of functional groups in zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks on stability, structural defects, and trace heavy metal capture” 255th ACS National Meeting and Exposition, March 19, 2018, New Orleans, LA. Invited talk.

Makal, T. A. “The PUI Professorship: Obtaining and maintaining a faculty position at a primarily undergraduate institution” UF Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Department of Chemistry joint seminar, October 11, 2017, Gainesville, FL. Invited talk.

Makal, T. A., Veige, A., Schanze, K. “Preparation of aurolated porphyinic materials with potential in photovoltaics: Application of iClick chemistry” 254th ACS National Meeting and Exposition, August 24, 2017, Washington, D.C.

“Methane in MOFs: Where, Why, and How” Natural Gas and Hydrogen Storage Symposium and Industry Connector Event 2015, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Keynote Lecture

“Improving Porosity and H2-Affinity of Porous Framework Materials” 2012 Annual Merit Review & Peer Evaluation, U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2012, Washington, DC.


Fast, C. D.*, Woods, J.*, Lentchner, J.*, Makal, T. A.; “Stabilizing defects in metal-organic frameworks: Pendant Lewis basic sites as capping agents in UiO-66-type MOFs toward highly stable and defective porous materials” ACS Spring 2020 National Meeting & Expo, March 2020, online due to COVID-19.

Makal, T. A.; Fast, C.* “Using HSAB in the design of MOFs toward water remediation” 5thInternational Conference on Metal-Organic Frameworks and Open Framework Materials,September 2016, Long Beach, CA.

Fast, C.*; Makal, T. A. “Metal-organic frameworks with embedded basic sites for heavy metal capture from aquatic environments” 5th International Conference on Metal-Organic Frameworks and Open Framework Materials, September 2016, Long Beach, CA.

Ph.D., Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry (Prof. Hongcai Joe Zhou), Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 2013
B.S., Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 2008
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